The distribution of actin and tubulin during the cell cycle of the budding yeast Saccharomyces was mapped by immunofluorescence using fixed cells from which the walls had been removed by digestion. The intranuclear mitotic spindle was shown clearly by staining with a monoclonal antitubulin; the presence of extensive bundles of cytoplasmic microtubules is reported. In cells containing short spindles still entirely within the mother cells, one of the bundles of cytoplasmic microtubules nearly always extended to (or into) the bud. Two independent reagents (anti-yeast actin and fluorescent phalloidin) revealed an unusual distribution of actin: it was present as a set of cortical dots or patches and also as distinct fibers that were presumably bundles of actin filaments. Double labeling showed that at no stage in the cell cycle do the distributions of actin and tubulin coincide for any significant length, and, in particular, that the mitotic spindle did not stain detectably for actin. However, both microtubule and actin staining patterns change in a characteristic way during the cell cycle. In particular, the actin dots clustered in rings about the bases of very small buds and at the sites on unbudded cells at which bud emergence was apparently imminent. Later in the budding cycle, the actin dots were present largely in the buds and, in many strains, primarily at the tips of these buds. At about the time of cytokinesis the actin dots clustered in the neck region between the separating cells. These aspects of actin distribution suggest that it may have a role in the localized deposition of new cell wall material.