[HELP with High Resolution Image Viewing]

[View Larger Version of this Image]

Figure S3. Schematic diagram of some molecular targets of lithium. Lithium affects different cellular processes, the two main pathways being the Wingless (Wnt) pathway and the inositol cycle (Gould et al., 2002; Coyle and Duman, 2003). Lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß) of the Wnt pathway and activates ß-catenin, which mediates Tcf-mediated transcription. Lithium also inhibits inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) to reduce free inositol that decreases intracellular inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) levels and a rundown of the inositol cycle (Berridge et al., 1989). We used specific a GSK-3ß inhibitor called SB216763 (Coghlan et al., 2000) and a specific IMPase inhibitor called L-690,330 (Atack et al., 1993), to identify the molecular target of lithium for inducing autophagy.