Table 1. Summary of parameters and variables used in the finite element simulations
ParameterDefinitionParameter values
E, νElastic moduli of the cellE = 10 kPa, ν = 0.49
EsElastic modulus of the series element2 MPa
σc0Isometric tension of contractionNeonate: 20 kPa; stem cell: 10 kPa
γStrain rate constantNeonate: −1.0 s−1; Stem cell: −0.5 s−1
kmaxMaximal value of cell substrate linkage constant0.7 kPa/µm
kcs(x,y)Cell substrate linkage constant0.0 to ∼0.7 kPa/µm
kccSpring constant of cell substrate adhesion0.01 to ∼0.05 kPa
ρmaxMaximal density of bound integrin400 µm−2
ρ(x,y)Density of bound integrin0 to ∼400 µm−2
T0Traction stress threshold0.65 to ∼1.0 kPa
σcContractile stressNA
σx, σy, τxyComponents of the stress tensorNA
ux, uyComponents of the displacement vectorNA
εx, εy, εxyComponents of the strain tensorNA
Tx, TyComponents of the traction stressNA