- A STRIPAK complex regulates axonal transport
The regulation of cargo transport within neurons is not well understood. Neisch et al. use Drosophila genetics to identify a multiprotein STRIPAK complex required for autophagosome and dense core vesicle transport in neurons. PP2A activity within the complex is necessary for transport.
- DGCR8 is required to exit pluripotency
DGCR8 is essential for mouse early development and microRNA biogenesis. Cirera-Salinas et al. report a new noncanonical function of DGCR8 essential for the exit from pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells.
- Ferroptosis-like cell death in plants
Distéfano et al. show that an iron-dependent, oxidative cell death process with biochemical and morphological similarities to ferroptosis, as described in mammalian cells, has a physiological role in plants, regulating plant cell death in response to heat stress.
- FKB-6 in meiotic chromosome pairing and synapsis
Dynein-mediated movement of microtubules is required for chromosome movement; its absence leads to aberrant segregation. Alleva et al. show that FKB-6, a cochaperone of Hsp-90, is required for proper chromosome movement through down-regulation of resting time between movements.
- Molecular basis of receptor-mediated transcytosis
Transcytosis plays an important role in establishing cell polarity and in mediating transport of large cargo across epithelial barriers, but its molecular basis is unclear. Nelms et al. present a new dataset of genes involved in receptor-mediated transcytosis and show that the apical and basolateral recycling and transcytotic pathways are genetically separable.
- Axonal autophagy promotes Wallerian degeneration
The pathophysiological function and induction mechanism of autophagy in neuronal axons have remained unclear. Wakatsuki et al. show that the GSK3B-mediated phosphorylation of MCL1 leads to its UPS-dependent degradation, which induces axonal autophagy and promotes axonal degeneration.
- Machine learning for phenotypic profiling
Grys et al. review computer vision and machine-learning methods that have been applied to phenotypic profiling of image-based data. Descriptions are provided for segmentation, feature extraction, selection, and dimensionality reduction, as well as clustering, outlier detection, and classification of data.
- ARNO-ARF1 signaling controls podosome formation
Rafiq et al. demonstrate that the small G protein ARF1 and its activator, cytohesin 2 (ARNO), are required for podosome formation in macrophage-like cells and fibroblasts. Inhibition of ARNO-ARF1 signaling results in increased RhoA activity and disassembly of podosomes in a myosin-IIA–dependent fashion. In fibroblasts that normally do not form podosomes, constitutively active ARF1 induces actin-rich puncta associated with sites of matrix degradation, putative precursors of podosomes.
- Compartmentalized pressure in tumor cells
Petrie et al. show that inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases during 3D tumor cell migration activates the fibroblast-associated nuclear piston mechanism of intracellular pressure generation to slow tumor cell movement.