- Transcriptional programs of dendritic cell maturation
Dendritic cells promote either immunosuppressive or immunogenic T cell responses, but the transcriptional and epigenetic programs regulating these functions are unclear. Vander Lugt et al. dissect the distinct programs underlying the immunogenic and tolerogenic mature states of dendritic cells in vitro.
- HAP2/GCS1 is a gamete fusion protein
HAP2/GCS1 is essential for gamete fusion in plants, invertebrates, and protists. Valansi et al. demonstrate that a plant HAP2 is an authentic fusion protein that can fuse animal cells.
- Mtb replicates within necrotic human macrophages
Mycobacterium tuberculosis triggers macrophage cell death by necrosis, but it is unclear how this affects bacterial replication. Lerner et al. show that this pathogen replicates within necrotic human macrophages before disseminating to other cells upon loss of plasma membrane integrity.
- Osteoblastic Lrp4 regulates osteoclastogenesis
Lrp4 is mutated in patients with high-bone-mass diseases. Loss of Lrp4 in osteoblasts (OBs) increases bone formation by OBs and decreases bone resorption by osteoclasts through an unclear mechanism. Xiong et al. show that overproduction of extracellular adenosine in Lrp4-deficient OBs, which are derived from ATP hydrolysis and signals through A2AR and RANK, may underlie Lrp4 regulation of osteoclastogenesis.
- TorsinA-dependent rearward nuclear movement
In fibroblasts and myoblasts polarizing for migration, retrograde actin flow moves the nucleus rearward, orienting the centrosome toward the leading edge. The nucleus engages moving dorsal actin cables through linear arrays of nesprin-2G and SUN2 called TAN lines. In this study, Saunders et al. report that the nuclear envelope–localized AAA+ ATPase torsinA and its activator, LAP1, are required for TAN line assembly and retrograde dorsal actin cable flow.
- Regulation of hepatic bioenergetics by HSF1
How cells sense energetic demands and regulate their bioenergetic networks to balance anabolism and catabolism is unclear. Qiao et al show that HSF1, a regulator of the chaperone response, has a central role in systemic energy sensing and is required for metabolic adaptation to nutrient availability.
- Trafficking of integral membrane proteins to cilia
Trafficking of integral membrane proteins to cilia is poorly understood. Badgandi et al. show that tubby family proteins TULP3 and TUB act as general adapters for ciliary trafficking of structurally diverse integral membrane cargo like GCPRs and the polycystin 1/2 complex.